Regulation of testicular steroidogenesis

Environment can have large impact on the HPG axis. One example is women with eating disorders suffer from oligomenorrhea and secondary amenorrhea. Starvation from anorexia nervosa or bulimia causes the HPG axis to deactivate causing women's ovarian and uterine cycles to stop. Stress, physical exercise, and weight loss have been correlated with oligomenorrhea and secondary amenorrhea. [17] Similarly environmental factors can also affect men such as stress causing impotence . Prenatal exposure to alcohol can affect the hormones regulating fetal development resulting in foetal alcohol spectrum disorder. [18]

2) Irreversible adaptation to sperm competition . It has been suggested that the ancestor of the boreoeutherian mammals was a small mammal that required very large testes (perhaps rather like those of a hamster ) for sperm competition and thus had to place its testes outside the body. [43] This led to enzymes involved in spermatogenesis, spermatogenic DNA polymerase beta and recombinase activities evolving a unique temperature optimum, slightly less than core body temperature. When the boreoeutherian mammals then diversified into forms that were larger and/or did not require intense sperm competition they still produced enzymes that operated best at cooler temperatures and had to keep their testes outside the body. This position is made less parsimonious by the fact that the kangaroo , a non-boreoeutherian mammal, has external testicles. The ancestors of kangaroos might, separately from boreotherian mammals, have also been subject to heavy sperm competition and thus developed external testes, however, kangaroo external testes are suggestive of a possible adaptive function for external testes in large animals.

Regulation of testicular steroidogenesis

regulation of testicular steroidogenesis


regulation of testicular steroidogenesisregulation of testicular steroidogenesisregulation of testicular steroidogenesisregulation of testicular steroidogenesisregulation of testicular steroidogenesis